Virtual Reality Memory Palaces

The ancient mnemonic “method of Loci” has been in use for thousands of years. From memory competitors to students, the method helps to memorise items by combining visual and spatial cues. Many have perhaps heard of the technique through popular TV shows such as Sherlock or Hannibal, where their “Mind Palaces” or “Memory Palaces” are portrayed as a genius trait.

Illustration based on “Mind Attic” by wonderful artist Tisserande. Original version without Head-Mounted Display can be found here.

The real method, however, is perfectly simple. You start by finding a location to act as your Memory Palace. It should be a place you know well, for instance your apartment or your university. You further isolate several rooms, and sub-parts of those rooms, that amount to the number of things you want to recall. Next, you may want to have a certain route which you mentally walk through your Memory Palace. This is where the method comes in: you visualise what you want to recall at the given places in your Mind Palace. Need to go shopping? Imagine coffee beans poured out on the floor, orange juice cartons in the sofa, and bananas hanging on the TV. If you need to recall something more abstract, you can get creative and use the visualisation as an association to what you want to recall instead.

This method is believed to be powerful because of the combination of information with visual cues (the visualisation of the memory items), and with spatial cues (their given place in the environment). Curiously, however, this exploitation of the visual and spatial cues in the brain, does not involve our vision, or true perception of spatial three-dimensional spaces at all — only through our “inner eye” and our already-established memory of spatial environments.

“Get out — I need to go to my Mind Palace”. Benedict Cumberbatch in BBC’s Sherlock  — Quite busy in his Memory Palace. Illustration of by edthatch.

But what if we could perform this method with raw, fresh vision that gives us both the visual and spatial cues? Such a task is perfect for the medium of Immersive Virtual Reality. In VR, we are provided with highly optimisible a visuo-spatial environment made of software, which gives us the opportunity  to tailor the Memory Palaces to our own needs. By exploiting the visuo-spatial elements of the method of Loci in a much more explicit sense,  the method may perhaps work even better, or be more fun and easy to use.

Addressing this, I created an a VR memory palace app as part of my master’s thesis in Information Science. The application is called “Mnemosyne”,  after the Greek goddess of memory, of which country the Method of Loci originated. Developed with A-Frame, the application presents you with a text field where you can enter the things you want to recall. You then put on your VR headset, and are presented with an apartment with five rooms where you can place these memory items you entered. The algorithm returns images based on your text preferences from a search engine, and places these in the virtual environment. When this is done, you just walk around and watch to memorise the items.

Mnemosyne is still just a prototype, and we can imagine it will have room for many improvements in the future – after more research has been done. Currently, we at the Centre for the Science of Learning & Technology (SLATE) have performed a pilot study with 18 participants. The short paper discussing the findings was published in June 2018 in the Springer’s series «Lecture Notes on Computer Science», in the «Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Computer Graphics» edition. The conference paper was presented in the beautiful village of Otranto at the Salento AVR conference in July.

Our first paper on VR Memory Palaces was posted in the LNCS on Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Computer Graphics.

Our paper, ‘Mnemosyne: Adapting the Method of Loci to Immersive Virtual Reality’, can be accessed at Springer. Stay put at Matrise for further updates on our work regarding Virtual Reality Memory Palaces.

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